As for the three great generations; then there was never the appearance of an apparent innovation in Al-Madeenah An-Nabawiyyah – at all. Nor did there come out from it an innovation pertaining to the principles of the religion – whatsoever – as had come out of all of the other lands. For indeed the great lands in which the companions of Allaah’s Messenger (Sallallaahu Ta’aalaa ‘alaihi wa sallam) settled in; there appeared there from knowledge and Eemaan; these were five:
The Haramain (Makkah & Madeenah)
The two ‘Iraaqs
From them appeared the Qur’aan and the Hadeeth, and Al-Fiqh, and worship – as well as that which follows on from them from the affairs of the religion.
There appeared from these lands innovations related to principles (of the Religion) – with the exception of Al-Madeenah An-Nabawiyyah.
So from Al-Koofah there appeared from it at-Tashayu’ and al-Irjaa, it then spread after that to other than it.
From Al-Basrah there appeared al-Qadr and al-I’tizaal as well as false and futile asceticism, which spread thereafter to other than it.
At Ash-Shaam there was an-Nasb and al-Qadr.
As for tajahhum (the innovation of the Jahmiyyah); then it appeared from the direction of Khurasaan; and it is from the most evil of innovations.
The appearance of innovations was in accordance to the distance from the abode of the Prophet. For when there appeared dissention after the killing of ‘Uthmaan – there appeared the innovation of Al-Hurooriyyah, the mention of their consequence by way of the Shee’ah has preceded wherein they disseminated into three extreme groups. Such that ‘Alee burned one with the fire, and al-Mufaddalah who were lashed eighty times, and the Subaa’iyyah who were warned and it was sought that Ibn Sabaa’ be punished by execution or other than it – and so fled instead from him (‘Alee).
Then; in the latter era of the companions, there appeared the Qadariyyah – in the latter era of Ibn ‘Umar and Ibn ‘Abbaas and Jaabir – and their likes from the Companions.
There appeared the Murji’ah shortly around that time.
As for the Jahmiyyah; then they appeared in the latter era of the Taabi’een; after the death of ‘Umar bin ‘Abdil-‘Azeez and it has been reported that he had warned concerning them. The appearance of Jahm* was in Khurasaan during the Khilaafah of Hishaam bin ‘Abdil-Maalik, whilst the Muslims had killed their Shaikh: Al-Ja’d bin Dirham** before that. He was slaughtered by Khaalid bin ‘Abdillaah Al-Qasree who said (on the day of ‘Eid): ‘O people! Make your slaughter/sacrifice – may Allaah accept your sacrifice; for I am making my slaughter by way of Al-Ja’d bin Dirham. For he claims that Allaah did not take Ibraaheem as a friend, and that He did not speak to Moosaa, High is Allaah from what Al-Ja’d bin Dirham asserts – High indeed'. Then he got down and slaughtered him. It has been reported that this reached Al-Hasan Al-Basree and his likes from the Taabi’een, so they were grateful for that.
As for Al-Madeenah An-Nabawiyyah; then it was safeguarded from the appearance of these innovations, even if it be that there were therein those who secretly aligned themselves to that – for they were despicable and low with its people, for there were a people therein from the Qadariyyah and other than them, however; they were laid to blame and vanquished. In opposition to the Tashayu’ and Irjaa’ that was in Al-Koofah, and the I’tizaal and the innovation of asceticism in Al-Basrah, and An-Nasb in Ash-Shaam – for indeed this was all apparent.
*He was Jahm bin Safwaan Aboo Muhriz Ar-Raasibee As-Samarqandee the theological writer; the founder of misguidance and the head of the Jahmiyyah, the astray innovator. He would negate the attributes of Allaah, and deny them for Al-Baaree (Allaah), he would say that the Qur’aan was created and he would say that Allaah is in all places. He would likewise say that Al-Eemaan is to assert it with the heart – even if one utters statements of kufr. He claimed that kufr is mere ignorance only. He said that a person has no choice in the affair of his action and would say: ‘there is no action and no practice for anyone other than Allaah Ta’aalaa’ and that actions are only associated to the creation metaphorically. Jahm would likewise – despite the misguidance mentioned – take up arms against the Sultaan, he made rebellion along with Suraij bin Al-Haarith (for whom he had been a writer) against Nasr bin Siyaar. He was killed by Salam bin Ahwaz in Marw towards the end of the rule of Bani Umayyah in the year 118H. (See Meezaan al-I’tidaal 1/426 & Siyar 6/26-27 & Al-Farq bayn al-firaq p.158-159)
**He was Al-Ja’d bin Dirham who was from the era of the Taabi’een. The astray innovator, he was the first to innovate into the religion that Allaah did not take Ibraaheem as a friend; and that He did not speak to Moosaa – and that this is impermissible to be said concerning Allaah. Al-Madaa’inee said concerning him: ‘He was a heretic’. Wahb said to him: ‘indeed I think you are from amongst those that are destroyed; were it not that Allaah had not informed us that He has a Hand, and that He has an Eye, we would not have said so either.’ And so Al-Ja’d did not remain for long thereafter until he was killed. Ibn Katheer (rahimahullaah) said: He was the Shaikh of Al-Jahm bin Safwaan to whom the sect of the Jahmiyyah is attributed to, they are those who say: that Allaah is in every place – with His essence – High is Allaah from what they say. Al-Ja’d bin Dirham took this foul Madhab from a man known as Abaan bin Sam’aan, and Abaan took it from Taaloot the son of the sister of Labeed bin Al-A’sam – from his uncle - Labeed bin Al-A’sam the Jew. He (Al-Ja’d) was killed by Khaalid bin ‘Abdillaah Al-Qusaree on the day of the sacrifice in the year 118H. (See Meezaan al-I’tidaal 1/399 & Siyar 5/433 & Al-Bidaayah wan-nihaayah 10/19.) (Translators Note)