All praise is due to Allaah alone and may the peace and blessings be upon His Messenger, his family and Companions. To proceed:
Indeed the one to whom the call of Islaam was conveyed - either from one that was before or during his time - and he did not respond and he died upon that, then he is from the people of the Fire. As for the one that the call did not reach, then he will be tested on the Day of Resurrection as is authentic concerning that from the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam
And success is with Allaah and may the peace and blessings of Allaah be upon our Prophet and his family and Companions.
Permanent Committee for Research and Verdicts
Shaykh `Abdul-`Azeez Bin Baz
Shaykh `Abdullah bin Ghudayaan
Shaykh `Abdullaah bin Qu`ood
Shaykh `Abdur-Razzaaq al-`Afeefee
Volume 3, Page 207, Maktabah Ma’aarif, Riyaadh 1412H
Translated by Abu Maryam Taariq bin 'Ali
 The affair of Ahlul Fatrah has been explained by the Imaam Ibnul-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah Rahimahullaah within the book entitled, ‘ØÑíÞ ÇáåÌÑÊíä æÈÇÈ ÇáÓÚÇÏÊíä’ an abridgement of which, has been translated entitled:
‘The Abridgment of the levels of the people in the Hereafter, taken from the book: ‘The path of the two migrations and the door to the two states of bliss.’’
This will be published by: SalafiPublications, Birmingham, January 2006 insha Allaah
Translated by Abu Talhah Dawood Ibn Ronald Burbank
Ahlul Fatrah are discussed as the fourteenth level (of the people in the Hereafter):
THE FOURTEENTH LEVEL: A people having neither obedience nor disobedience, and having neither Unbelief nor true Faith (Eemaan); and they are of different types.
So from them are those whom the true call did not reach at all and who did not hear it being related. Also from them is the insane person who could not grasp anything requiring intellect and could not discern. Also from them is the deaf person who never heard anything. And also from them are the children of the Mushriks: those who died before being able to discern anything.
So the Ummah has differed greatly regarding the like of this level, and they have spoken a great deal about the matter of the children of the Mushriks…
As for the children of the Muslims then Imaam Ahmad said: ‘No one differs concerning them.’ (i.e. that they will be in Paradise).
However Ibn `Abdul-Barr related from a group that they withheld with regard to them and stated that all children fall under (the ruling of Allaah’s) Will and Wish (Mashee•ah). As for the children of the Mushriks, then the people have eight sayings with regard to them:
Firstly: To withhold regarding them and to refrain from asserting that they will be in Paradise or that they will be in the Fire. Rather, knowledge of them is entrusted to Allaah, the Most High, and what is said regarding them is what the Prophet sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said as occurs in the authentic hadeeth which is agreed upon: ‹Allaah knows best what they would have done›.
Secondly: That they will be in the Fire. This was held by a group of the people of theological rhetoric (al-Mutakallimoon) and of the people of tafseer.
Thirdly: That they will be in Paradise. This was the saying of a group of the people of tafseer, the people of theological rhetoric, and others.
Fourthly: That they will be in a station between the two stations: between Paradise and the Fire. This was the saying of a group of the people of tafseer.
Fifthly: That they are under the Wish and Will (Mashee•ah) of Allaah, the Most High: if He wishes He will punish them and if He wishes He will forgive them.
Sixthly: That they will be servants for the people of Paradise and slaves for them: just like their servants and slaves in the world…
Seventhly: That they have the same ruling as their fathers in this world and the Hereafter and are not separated from them in their ruling in the abode…
Eighthly: And it is what is most correct: That they will be tried on the open plain of the Resurrection; and that a Messenger will be sent to them there and to everyone whom the true call did not reach. Then whoever obeys the Messenger will enter Paradise, and whoever disobeys him will enter the Fire. With this (saying) all of the evidences are harmonised.
 Translator’s footnote: [al-Bukhaaree (no. 1384) and Muslim (2659) from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) and al-Bukhaaree (no. 6597) and Muslim (no. 2660) from a hadeeth of Ibn `Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him)].
 Translator’s footnote: Ibnul-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy upon him) adds in ‘Tareequl-Hijratayn’ that they use as evidence the hadeeth of Samurah ibn Jundub reporting a dream of the Prophet sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam where he saw the children who died upon the Fitrah being around Ibraaheem (‘alayhi salaam) in Paradise. The people asked: ‘What about the children of the Mushriks?’ He sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: ‹And the children of the Mushriks.› [al-Bukhaaree (no. 7047)]
 Translator’s footnote: Ibnul-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy upon him) adds in ‘Tareequl- Hijratayn’ that this is the saying of those who hold: “There will be no judgement concerning them except that of pure Wish and Will.” This is the saying of the Jabariyyah: those who negate (Allaah’s) Wisdom and purpose; it is the saying of many of those who (over) affirm Pre-Decree, and others.
 Translator’s footnote: Ibnul-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy upon him) mentions in ‘Tareequl-Hijratayn’ that this is supported by the authentic ahaadeeth, amongst them the hadeeth: ‹Four (people) will be brought on the Day of Resurrection: the child, the mentally retarded person, the one who died in the period between Messengers, and the senile old person. Each one will state his plea. So the Lord, the Blessed and Most High, will say to a part of the Fire: ‘Come forward.’ So He will say to them: ‘I sent Messengers to My servants, from amongst themselves, and I am a Messenger for Myself to you. Enter this!’ So those upon whom wretchedness was written will say: ‘O my Lord! How can we enter it when we previously fled from it?’ He said: And whoever had it written for him that he was to be from the fortunate will proceed (into it) and will rush into it. He said: So He, the Blessed and Most High, will say (i.e. to the first group): ‘You would have been more severe in denying and disobeying my Messengers.’ So He will enter those into Paradise and these into the Fire.› [From ahaadeeth of Anas ibn Maalik reported by Aboo Ya’laa and al-Bazzaar; and Aboo Sa`eed al-Khudree reported by al-Baghawee in ‘Hadeeth Ibnul-Ja’d’; and Mu`aadh reported by at-Tabaraanee. Shaikh al-Albaanee declared that these narrations and others strengthen each other: ‘as-Saheehah’ (no. 2468)].
Shaikhul-Islaam Ibn Taimiyyah said [‘Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa’ (4/246-247)]: “So therefore when Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was asked about those who die young from the children of the Mushriks, he said: ‹Allaah knows what deeds they would have done›, meaning: Allaah knows those who would have been Believers from them and those who would have been Unbelievers had they attained adulthood. Then there occurs in a hadeeth whose chain of narrations is passable, from Aboo Hurairah (may Allaah be pleased with him) from the Prophet sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that he said: ‹On the Day of Resurrection Allaah will test them and send a messenger to them on the plain of the Resurrection. So whoever obeys him will enter Paradise and whoever disobeys him will enter the Fire.›
So there whatever Allaah, the Perfect, knew about them will be made manifest, and He will recompense them on this basis of what was manifested from the knowledge: which is their Eemaan or Unbelief; not on the basis of (His) Knowledge alone.
So this is the best that has been said concerning the children of the Mushriks, and all of the ahaadeeth are to be understood in the light of it.”
Taken from: ‘The Abridgment of the levels of the people in the Hereafter'
Translated by Abu Talhah Dawood Ibn Ronald Burbank
SalafiPublications, Birmingham, UK