So the companions radhiyallaahu ‘anhum were the least of people to fall into Fitan (trials) in comparison to those who came after them. For as time moved on from after the period of Prophethood – the splitting and differing increased. Therefore during the khilaafah of ‘Uthmaan no open innovation made itself manifest, but when he (‘Uthmaan) was killed, the people then split and there appeared two innovations that were at opposites of each other:
- The innovation of the Khawaarij – those that made takfeer of ‘Alee.
- The innovation of the Raafidhah – those who claimed his outright Imaamah and that he (‘Alee) was infallible, or claimed his Prophethood, or to his being Allaah.
Then at the period when the last of the companions were alive, during the rule of Ibn Az-Zubair and ‘Abdul-Malik, there appeared the innovation of:
- The Murji’ah
- The Qadariyyah.
Then at the first period of the Taabi’oon – towards the end of the rule of the Umayyads, there appeared the innovation of:
- The Jahmiyyah Al-Mu’attalah
- The Mushabbihah Al-Mumathilah.
Whilst there was never anything of that kind during the times of the companions.